Staphylococcus Aureus is a type of facultative anaerobic gram positive coccal bacterium. Generally, it is frequently present as a part of the skin flora originated on skin and also in the nose, so in this manner nearly 20 % of the world’s human population has become long-term carriers of S. Aureus.
A Brief note on S. Aureus
- Aureus is the most frequent type of staphylococci to trigger Staph infections. One of the prominent reasons for this infection is a carotenoid pigment staphyloxanthin, which is usually responsible for golden color of the bacterium colonies. The pigment works as a virulence factor along with antioxidant action, which eventually helps the microbe shirk death by hasty oxygen species employed by the host immune system.
It has the ability to cause a range of different infections from ranging from minor skin infections including impetigo, pimples, boils, scalded skin syndrome, to life threatening ailments such as meningitis, pneumonia, toxic shock, endocarditis, Sepsis etc.
Main Incidence Areas
The main occurrence areas of the Staph infections include soft tissue, skin, bone, respiratory organs, joints, endovascular to lesion infections. The bacterium is one of main causes for nosocomial infections, frequently causing postsurgical infections. Every year, nearly 500,000 patients in U.S hospitals are prone to staphylococcal infection.
Treatment and Antibiotic Confrontation
Staph Aureus infection treatment completely depends upon the affected area such as nose, skin etc., and also on the seriousness of the illness.
In most of the countries, the main treatment of choice for common S. Aureus infections is Penicillin. In most of the cases, the first-line therapy commonly used is a penicillinase resistant β-lactam antibiotic such as flucloxacillin and Oxacillin.
An advanced combination therapy with gentamicin can be used in case of serious infections including endocarditis, but its usage is little controversial due to high-risk of harm to kidneys.
The period of treatment entirely depends on the area of injection, and also on severity of the illness. Some researchers from Italy have found a bacteriphage active against Staph Aureus, including MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Strains, in mice and probably humans.
Some Measures to Control S. Aureus Infection
It is a contagious disease so, it is generally spread via human to human contact, and even it could be transmitted through pets in some cases. The usage of disposable gloves and aprons reduces the danger of transmission as it prevents skin to skin contact.
Biological control has been proved one of the best ways to control S. Aureus spreading in body surfaces. It is done by colonization of body surfaces (particularly in the nose) using Staphylococcus Epidermidis, which avoids the establishment of S. Aureus bacterium.